Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) metabolism and caused by a defect in the thiamine-dependent enzyme branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) with subsequent accumulation of BCAAs and corresponding branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) metabolites. Presently, at least 4 genes of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DLD and DBT have been reported to cause MSUD. Furthermore, more than 265 mutations have been identified as the cause across different populations worldwide. Some studies have reported the data of gene mutations in Chinese people with MSUD. In this study, we present clinical characteristics and mutational analyses in five Chinese Han child with MSUD, which had been screened out by tandem mass spectrometry detection of amino acids in blood samples. High-throughput sequencing, Sanger sequence and real-time qualitative PCR were performed to detect and verify the genetic mutations. Six different novel genetic variants were validated in BCKDHB gene and BCKDHA gene, including c.523 T > C, c.659delA, c.550delT, c.863G > A and two gross deletions. Interestingly, 3 cases had identical mutation of BCKDHB gene (c.659delA). We predicted the pathogenicity and analyzed the clinical characteristics. The identification of these mutations in this study further expands the mutation spectrum of MSUD and contributes to prenatal molecular diagnosis of MSUD.
Keywords: BCKDHA; BCKDHB; Maple syrup urine disease; Mutation.