Kir4.1 in the distal convoluted tubule plays a key role in sensing plasma potassium and in modulating the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). Here we tested whether dietary potassium intake modulates Kir4.1 and whether this is essential for mediating the effect of potassium diet on NCC. High potassium intake inhibited the basolateral 40 pS potassium channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the distal convoluted tubule, decreased basolateral potassium conductance, and depolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane in Kcnj10flox/flox mice, herein referred to as control mice. In contrast, low potassium intake activated Kir4.1, increased potassium currents, and hyperpolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane. These effects of dietary potassium intake on the basolateral potassium conductance and membrane potential in the distal convoluted tubule were completely absent in inducible kidney-specific Kir4.1 knockout mice. Furthermore, high potassium intake decreased, whereas low potassium intake increased the abundance of NCC expression only in the control but not in kidney-specific Kir4.1 knockout mice. Renal clearance studies demonstrated that low potassium augmented, while high potassium diminished, hydrochlorothiazide-induced natriuresis in control mice. Disruption of Kir4.1 significantly increased basal urinary sodium excretion but it abolished the natriuretic effect of hydrochlorothiazide. Finally, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis in kidney-specific Kir4.1 knockout mice were exacerbated by potassium restriction and only partially corrected by a high-potassium diet. Thus, Kir4.1 plays an essential role in mediating the effect of dietary potassium intake on NCC activity and potassium homeostasis.
Keywords: EAST syndrome; Kcnj10; Kcnj16; hyperkalemia; hypokalemia.
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