Accomplices of the Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment Compromising Antitumor Immunity: Adenosine, Lactate, Acidosis, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Potassium Ions, and Phosphatidylserine

Front Immunol. 2017 Dec 21:8:1887. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01887. eCollection 2017.


In this minireview, we aim to highlight key factors of the tumor microenvironment, including adenosine, lactate, acidosis, vascular endothelial growth factor, phosphatidylserine, high extracellular K+ levels, and tumor hypoxia with respect to antitumor immune functions. Most solid tumors have an immature chaotic microvasculature that results in tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia is a key determinant of tumor aggressiveness and therapy resistance and hypoxia-related gene products can thwart antitumor immune responses.

Keywords: acidosis; adenosine; antitumor immunity; lactate; phosphatidylserine; potassium ions; tumor hypoxia; vascular endothelial growth factor.

Publication types

  • Review