Purpose of review: Adolescents, in particular those that are most disenfranchised, are increasingly at risk of acquiring HIV and, when acquiring HIV, have worse outcomes than adults. This article reviews the recent approaches to combination prevention aiming to optimize the HIV prevention and HIV treatment continua.
Recent findings: There are dramatic sociodemographic differences in the HIV epidemics in low and middle-income countries (young women in sub-Saharan Africa) compared with high-income countries (predominantly gay, bisexual, transgendered youth, especially black and Latino youth). Researchers and clinicians are designing developmentally tailored interventions that anticipate youths' engagement with mobile technologies and build on the common features of evidence-based interventions that predate the use of antiretroviral therapies (ARV) for prevention and treatment.
Summary: Evidence-based HIV prevention and treatment programs that are cost-effective need to be broadly diffused globally. Substantial investments must be made in understanding how to implement programs, which have clinically meaningful impact and continuously monitor intervention quality over time.