Acquisition of multimodal brain imaging data for the same subject has become more common leading to a growing interest in determining the intermodal relationships between imaging modalities to further elucidate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Multimodal data have previously been individually analyzed and subsequently integrated; however, these analysis techniques lack the ability to examine true modality inter-relationships. The utilization of a multiset canonical correlation and joint independent component analysis (mCCA + jICA) model for data fusion allows shared or distinct abnormalities between modalities to be examined. In this study, first-episode schizophrenia patients (nSZ =19) and matched controls (nHC =21) completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan at 7 T. Grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) maps were used as features in a mCCA + jICA model. Results of the mCCA + jICA model indicated three joint group-discriminating components (GM-CSF, WM-ALFF, GM-ALFF) and two modality-unique group-discriminating components (GM, WM). The joint component findings are highlighted by GM basal ganglia, somatosensory, parietal lobe, and thalamus abnormalities associated with ventricular CSF volume; WM occipital and frontal lobe abnormalities associated with temporal lobe function; and GM frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobe abnormalities associated with caudate function. These results support and extend major findings throughout the literature using independent single modality analyses. The multimodal fusion of 7 T data in this study provides a more comprehensive illustration of the relationships between underlying neuronal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia than examination of imaging data independently.
Keywords: 7 Tesla; amplitude of low frequency fluctuations; first-episode schizophrenia; joint independent component analysis; multimodal fusion; resting-state fMRI.
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