Background: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) in patients with pulmonary diseases remain to be resolved clinical issue. However, most evidence regarding PPC has been established more than 10 years ago. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate perioperative management using new inhalant drugs in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases.
Methods: April 2014 through March 2015, 346 adult patients with pulmonary diseases (257 asthma, 89 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) underwent non-pulmonary surgery except cataract surgery in our university hospital. To analyze the risk factors for PPC, we retrospectively evaluated physiological backgrounds, surgical factors and perioperative specific treatment for asthma and COPD.
Results: Finally, 29 patients with pulmonary diseases (22 asthma, 7 COPD) had PPC. In patients with asthma, smoking index (≥ 20 pack-years), peripheral blood eosinophil count (≥ 200/mm3) and severity (Global INitiative for Asthma(GINA) STEP ≥ 3) were significantly associated with PPC in the multivariate logistic regression analysis [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 5.4(1.4-20.8), 0.31 (0.11-0.84) and 3.2 (1.04-9.9), respectively]. In patients with COPD, age, introducing treatment for COPD, upper abdominal surgery and operation time (≥ 5 h) were significantly associated with PPC [1.18 (1.00-1.40), 0.09 (0.01-0.81), 21.2 (1.3-349) and 9.5 (1.2-77.4), respectively].
Conclusions: History of smoking or severe asthma is a risk factor of PPC in patients with asthma, and age, upper abdominal surgery, or long operation time is a risk factor of PPC in patients with COPD. Adequate inhaled corticosteroids treatment in patients with eosinophilic asthma and introducing treatment for COPD in patients with COPD could reduce PPCs.
Keywords: Asthma; COPD; Eosinophils; Postoperative pulmonary complication; Risk factors.