MicroRNAs play an essential role in stroke pathology. Here, we investigated the role of a newly identified microRNA, miR-3473b, in stroke pathology. The expression of miR-3473b was upregulated in the cortex and striatum in mice following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Intracerebroventricular injection of the miR-3473b antagomir prior to MCAO remarkably attenuated ischemia-induced expression of miR-3473b and pro-inflammatory factors in the ischemic brain and decreased infarct volumes in mice following MCAO. Using in vitro approaches, we showed that the miR-3473b antagomir reduced the mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory factors (iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6) in BV2 microglial cells subjected to LPS stimulation. The miR-3473b antagomir also decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in BV2 cells activated with conditioned medium collected from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated neurons. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a physiological regulator of innate and adaptive immunity, was predicted to be a potential target of miR-3473b. We verified that the miR-3473b mimic decreased SOCS3 expression in BV2 cells. Meanwhile, the miR-3473b antagomir significantly increased both SOCS3 mRNA and protein levels in the BV2 cells treated with LPS as well as in the ischemic brain. By using the dual luciferase assay, we further showed that the 3'-untranslational region of SOCS3 was directly targeted by miR-3473b. In conclusion, induction of miR-3473b, which is likely targeted to SOCS3, contributes to stroke pathogenesis by enhancing post-stroke neuroinflammation injury.