RFX1 and RFX3 Transcription Factors Interact with the D Sequence of Adeno-Associated Virus Inverted Terminal Repeat and Regulate AAV Transduction

Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 9;8(1):210. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18604-3.


Adeno-associated virus (AAV) transduction efficiency depends on the way in which cellular proteins process viral genomes in the nucleus. In this study, we have investigated the binding of nuclear proteins to the double stranded D (dsD) sequence of the AAV inverted terminal repeat (ITRs) by electromobility shift assay. We present here several lines of evidence that transcription factors belonging to the RFX protein family bind specifically and selectively to AAV2 and AAV1 dsD sequences. Using supershift experiments, we characterize complexes containing RFX1 homodimers and RFX1/RFX3 heterodimers. Following transduction of HEK-293 cells, the AAV genome can be pulled-down by RFX1 and RFX3 antibodies. Moreover, our data suggest that RFX proteins which interact with transcriptional enhancers of several mammalian DNA viruses, can act as regulators of AAV mediated transgene expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Dependovirus / genetics*
  • Dependovirus / metabolism
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Protein Binding
  • Regulatory Factor X Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Regulatory Factor X Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Regulatory Factor X1 / genetics
  • Regulatory Factor X1 / metabolism*
  • Terminal Repeat Sequences
  • Transduction, Genetic*


  • RFX1 protein, human
  • RFX3 protein, human
  • Regulatory Factor X Transcription Factors
  • Regulatory Factor X1