Adeno-associated virus (AAV) transduction efficiency depends on the way in which cellular proteins process viral genomes in the nucleus. In this study, we have investigated the binding of nuclear proteins to the double stranded D (dsD) sequence of the AAV inverted terminal repeat (ITRs) by electromobility shift assay. We present here several lines of evidence that transcription factors belonging to the RFX protein family bind specifically and selectively to AAV2 and AAV1 dsD sequences. Using supershift experiments, we characterize complexes containing RFX1 homodimers and RFX1/RFX3 heterodimers. Following transduction of HEK-293 cells, the AAV genome can be pulled-down by RFX1 and RFX3 antibodies. Moreover, our data suggest that RFX proteins which interact with transcriptional enhancers of several mammalian DNA viruses, can act as regulators of AAV mediated transgene expression.