Population Genetics of Verticillium dahliae in Iran Based on Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers

Phytopathology. 2018 Jun;108(6):780-788. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-11-17-0360-R. Epub 2018 Apr 16.


Verticillium dahliae is a plant pathogenic fungus that reproduces asexually and its population structure is highly clonal. In the present study, 78 V. dahliae isolates from Iran were genotyped for mating type, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and microsatellites to assign them to clonal lineages and to determine population genetic structure in Iran. The mating type of all isolates was MAT1-2. Based on neighbor-joining analysis and minimum spanning networks constructed from SNPs and microsatellite genotypes, respectively, all but four isolates were assigned to lineage 2B824; four isolates were assigned to lineage 4B. The inferred coalescent genealogy of isolates in lineage 2B824 showed a clear divergence into two clades that corresponded to geographic origin and host. Haplotypes of cotton and pistachio isolates sampled from central Iran were in one clade, and those of isolates from Prunus spp. sampled from northwestern Iran were in the other. The strong divergence in haplotypes between the two clades suggests that there were at least two separate introductions of lineage 2B824 to different parts of Iran. Given the history of cotton and pistachio cultivation and Verticillium wilt in Iran, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that cotton was historically a likely source inoculum causing Verticillium wilt in pistachio.

MeSH terms

  • DNA, Fungal / genetics*
  • Iran
  • Microsatellite Repeats*
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics*
  • Verticillium / genetics*


  • DNA, Fungal