Background: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening disease with a high mortality rate. However, there are limited treatments or devices available for ALF therapy. Here, we aimed to develop a new strategy for ALF treatment by transplanting functional liver organoids (LOs) generated from single donor-derived human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) endoderm, endothelial cells (ECs), and mesenchymal cells (MCs).
Methods: First, we isolated ECs and MCs from a single donor umbilical cord (UC) through enzyme digestion and characterized the UC-ECs and UC-MCs by flow cytometry. Second, using a nonviral reprogramming method, we generated same donor-derived hiPSCs from the UC-ECs and investigated their hepatic differentiation abilities. Finally, we simultaneously plated EC-hiPSC endoderm, UC-ECs, and UC-MCs in a three-dimensional (3D) microwell culture system, and generated single donor cell-derived differentiated LOs for ALF mouse treatment.
Results: We obtained ECs and MCs from a single donor UC with high purity, and these cells provided a multicellular microenvironment that promoted LO differentiation. hiPSCs from the same donor were generated from UC-ECs, and the resultant EC-hiPSCs could be differentiated efficiently into pure definitive endoderm and further into hepatic lineages. Simultaneous plating of EC-hiPSC endoderm, UC-ECs, and UC-MCs in the 3D microwell system generated single donor cell-derived LOs (SDC-LOs) that could be differentiated into functional LOs with enhanced hepatic capacity as compared to that of EC-hiPSC-derived hepatic-like cells. When these functional SDC-LOs were transplanted into the renal subcapsules of ALF mice, they rapidly assumed hepatic functions and improved the survival rate of ALF mice.
Conclusion: These results demonstrate that functional LOs generated from single donor cells can improve the condition of ALF mice. Functional SDC-LO transplantation provides a promising novel approach for ALF therapy.
Keywords: Acute liver failure; Human induced pluripotent stem cells; Liver organoids; Liver regeneration; Single donor.