Keshan disease (KD) is a kind of endemic cardiomyopathy which has a high mortality. However, molecular mechanism in the pathogenesis of KD remains poorly understood. Serum samples were collected from 112 KD patients and 112 normal controls. Gene microarray was used to screen differently expressed genes. Genevestigator was applied to forecast co-expression genes of significant gene. iTRAQ proteomics analysis was used to verify significant genes and their co-expression genes. GO, COG, IPA and STRING were applied to undertake function categorization, pathway and network analysis separately. We identified 32 differentially expressed genes; IDH2, FEM1A, SSPB1 and their respective 30 co-expression genes; 68 differential proteins in KD. Significant proteins were categorized into 23 biological processes, 16 molecular functions, 16 cellular components, 15 function classes, 13 KD pathways and 1 network. IDH2, FEM1A, SSBP1, CALR, NDUFS2, IDH3A, GAPDH, TCA Cycle II (Eukaryotic) pathway and NADP repair pathway may play important roles in the pathogenesis of KD.