Objective: To compare outcomes between planned and urgent cesarean hysterectomy for morbidly adherent placenta managed by a multidisciplinary team.
Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of women with singleton pregnancies with antenatally suspected and pathologically confirmed morbidly adherent placenta who underwent cesarean hysterectomy between January 1, 2011, and February 30, 2017. Timing of delivery was classified as either planned (delivery at 34-35 weeks of gestation) or urgent (need for urgent delivery as a result of uterine contractions, bleeding, or both). The primary outcome variable was composite maternal morbidity. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for urgent delivery.
Results: One hundred thirty patients underwent hysterectomy. Sixty (46.2%) required urgent delivery. Composite maternal morbidity was identified in 34 (56.7%) of the urgent and 26 (37.1%) of the planned deliveries (P=.03). Fewer units of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma were transfused in the planned delivery group (red blood cells, median interquartile range 3 [0-8] versus 1 [0-4], P=.02; fresh frozen plasma, median interquartile range 1 [0-2] versus 0 [0-0], P=.001). Rates of low Apgar score and respiratory distress syndrome were higher in the urgent compared with the planned delivery group (5-minute Apgar score less than 7, 34 [59.6%] versus 14 [23.3%], P<.01; respiratory distress syndrome, 34 [61.8%] versus 16 [27.1%], P<.01). A history of two or more prior cesarean deliveries was an independent predictor of urgent delivery (adjusted odds ratio 11.4, 95% CI 1.8-71.1).
Conclusion: Women with morbidly adherent placenta requiring urgent delivery have a worse outcome than women with planned delivery. Women with morbidly adherent placenta and two or more prior cesarean deliveries are at increased risk for urgent delivery. In such women, scheduling delivery before the standard 34- to 35-week timeframe may be reasonable.