The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag) transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12) were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD), high animal fat diet (HAFD), and high fructose diet (HFruD). MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9.4 T scanner after 8 weeks on the diet. 1H spectra were acquired using point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) from two 1 mm3 boxes on each side of inguinal mammary gland with no cancers, lymph nodes, or lymph ducts. High spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) images were also acquired from nine 1-mm slices. A combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions was used to fit the spectra. The percentages of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were calculated from each fitted spectrum. Water and fat peak height images (maps) were generated from HiSS data. The results showed that HAFD mice had significantly lower PUFA than both LFD (p < 0.001) and HFruD (p < 0.01) mice. The mammary lipid quantity calculated from 1H spectra was much larger in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.03) but similar to HFruD mice (p = 0.10). The average fat signal intensity over the mammary glands calculated from HiSS fat maps was ~60% higher in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.04) mice. The mean or median of calculated parameters for the HFruD mice were between those for LFD and HAFD mice. Therefore, PRESS spectroscopy and HiSS MRI demonstrated water and fat composition changes in mammary glands due to a Western diet, which was low in potassium, high in sodium, animal fat, and simple carbohydrates. Measurements of PUFA with MRI could be used to evaluate cancer risk, improve cancer detection and diagnosis, and guide preventative therapy.