Mechanical thrombectomy in basilar artery occlusion: influence of reperfusion on clinical outcome and impact of the first-line strategy (ADAPT vs stent retriever)

J Neurosurg. 2018 Dec 1;129(6):1482-1491. doi: 10.3171/2017.7.JNS171043.


OBJECTIVESeveral randomized trials have been focused on patients with anterior circulation stroke, whereas few data on posterior circulation stroke are available. Thus, new mechanical thrombectomy (MT) strategies, including a direct-aspiration first-pass technique (ADAPT), remain to be evaluated in basilar artery occlusion (BAO) patients. The authors here assessed the influence of reperfusion on outcome in BAO patients and examined whether ADAPT improves the reperfusion rate compared with stent retriever devices.METHODSThree comprehensive stroke centers prospectively collected individual data from BAO patients treated with MT. Baseline characteristics as well as radiographic and clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 MT strategies. The primary outcome measure was the rate of successful reperfusion, defined as a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) grade of 2b-3. Favorable outcome was defined as a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2.RESULTSAmong the 100 adult patients included in the study, 46 were treated with first-line ADAPT (median age 61 years, IQR 53-71 years; stent-retriever rescue therapy was secondarily used in 12 [26.1%]) and 54 were treated with a primary stent retriever (median age 67 years, IQR 53-78 years). There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the 2 treatment groups, except for the rate of diabetes (19.6% vs 5.7%, respectively, p = 0.035). Successful reperfusion was achieved in 79% of the overall study sample. Overall, the rate of favorable outcome was 36.8% and 90-day all-cause mortality was 44.2%. Successful reperfusion positively impacted favorable outcome (OR 4.57, 95% CI 1.24-16.87, p = 0.023). A nonsignificant trend toward a higher successful reperfusion rate (unadjusted OR 2.56, 95% CI 0.90-7.29, p = 0.071) and a significantly higher rate of complete reperfusion (mTICI grade 3; unadjusted OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.14-5.86, p = 0.021) was found in the ADAPT group. The procedure duration was also significantly lower in the ADAPT group (median 45 minutes, IQR 34 to 62 minutes vs 56 minutes, IQR 40 to 90 minutes; p = 0.05), as was the rate of periprocedural complications (4.3% vs 25.9%, p = 0.003). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (0.0% vs 4.0%, p = 0.51) and 90-day all-cause mortality (46.7% vs 42.0%, p = 0.65) were similar in the 2 groups.CONCLUSIONSAmong BAO patients, successful reperfusion is a strong predictor of a 90-day favorable outcome, and the choice of ADAPT as the first-line strategy achieves a significantly higher rate of complete reperfusion with a shorter procedure duration.

Keywords: ADAPT; ADAPT = a direct-aspiration first-pass technique; ASPECTS = Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score; BAO = basilar artery occlusion; MT = mechanical thrombectomy; NIHSS = National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; acute stroke; aspiration; basilar artery occlusion; mRS = modified Rankin Scale; mTICI = modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia; reperfusion; stent retriever; thrombectomy; vascular disorders.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Basilar Artery / surgery*
  • Brain Ischemia / surgery*
  • Endovascular Procedures / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stents
  • Stroke / surgery*
  • Thrombectomy / methods*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency / surgery*