Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have a high potency for cytokine production independent of specific Ag stimulation. Imbalance of ILC subsets may influence cytokine production in humans and hence be associated with the development of inflammatory disease. Evidence for an imbalance of ILC homeostasis in human disease, however, is very limited to date. In this study we show that psoriatic arthritis (PsA), a severe disease of the joints depending on the activation of the IL-23/IL-17 pathway, is characterized by a skewed ILC homeostasis. Circulating ILC3s as potent source of IL-17/IL-22 were elevated in active PsA, whereas ILC2s, which produce proresolving cytokines, were decreased. The ILC2/ILC3 ratio was significantly correlated with clinical disease activity scores and the presence of imaging signs of joint inflammation and bone damage. Multivariable analysis showed that a high ILC2/ILC3 ratio is associated with remission in PsA, suggesting that specific alterations of ILC homeostasis control disease activity in PsA.
Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.