Anemia is a frequent complication during the later stages of chronic kidney disease. When present, it may cause symptoms such as fatigue and shortness of breath. The pathogenesis of anemia in chronic kidney disease is complex, but a central feature is a relative deficit of erythropoietin. New information has elucidated the critical role of the hypoxia-sensing system in mediating erythropoietin synthesis and release. Iron deficiency is a second important factor in the anemia of chronic kidney disease. New insights into the dynamics of iron metabolism have clarified the role of chronic inflammation and hepcidin as key mediators of impaired iron utilization. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathobiology, clinical evaluation, and treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease.
Keywords: anemia; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease (CKD); darbepoeitin alfa; epoetin alfa; erythropoiesis; erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA); erythropoietin deficiency; fatigue; hemoglobin; iron; quality of life; review.
Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.