Objective: To assess parental health status inclusive of infertility and infant outcomes.
Design: Birth cohort with cross-sectional analysis of parental health status and infant outcomes.
Setting: Not applicable.
Patient(s): Parents (n = 4,886) and infants (n = 5,845) participating in the Upstate KIDS birth cohort.
Main outcome measure(s): Infertility was defined as  sexually active without contraception for 1+ years without pregnancy,  ever requiring ≥12 months to become pregnant, and  requiring ≥12 months for index pregnancy. Multivariable linear regression with generalized estimating equations estimated the change (β coefficient and 95% confidence interval [CI]) in infant outcomes (gestation, birthweight, length, head circumference, ponderal index) and relative to each disease, including infertility after adjusting for age, body mass index, and infertility treatment.
Result(s): Prevalence of parental chronic diseases ranged from <1% to 19%, and 21% to 54% for infertility. Maternal hypertension was negatively associated with gestation (β, -0.64; 95% CI, -1.03, -0.25) and birthweight (-151.98; -262.30, -41.67) as was asthma and birthweight (-75.01; -130.40, -19.62). Maternal kidney disease was associated with smaller head circumference (-1.09; -2.17, -0.01), whereas paternal autoimmune disease was associated with larger head circumference (0.87; 0.15, 1.60). Infertility was negatively associated with birthweight (-62.18; -103.78, -20.58), length (-0.33; -0.60, -0.06), and head circumference (-0.35; -0.67, -0.03).
Conclusion(s): Infertility was significantly associated with reduced infant size even after accounting for infertility treatment, although the magnitude of reduction varied by definition of infertility. Absence of pregnancy within a year of being at risk may be informative about health.
Keywords: Birth size; fecundity; health; infertility; pregnancy.
Published by Elsevier Inc.