Changes in the concentrations of inflammatory and oxidative status biomediators (MIP-1 α, PMN elastase, MDA, and IL-12) in depressed patients with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

Pharmacol Rep. 2018 Feb;70(1):110-118. doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2017.08.008. Epub 2017 Aug 26.


Background: Both proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are considered an imbalance between the cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant defense mechanisms. An inflammatory response that occurs in depression leads to a synergy between pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. This synergy induces common signal transduction pathways that boost the inflammatory cascade. The object of this study was to assess the concentrations of inflammatory and oxidative status biomediators such as MIP-1α, PMN elastase, MDA, and IL-12 in depressed patients with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and with PTSD alone.

Methods: The number of participants enrolled in the study was 460. Out of them, 420 were determined to be suffering from depression, and 40 (20 males and 20 females) comprised the control group. The subjects were divided into groups, each consisting of 60 participants (30 males and 30 females) with: mild depression (MD), moderate depression (MOD), severe depression (SeD), MD and PTSD (MD+PTSD), MOD and PTSD (MOD+PTSD), SeD and PTSD (Sed+PTSD), and PTSD alone. At 7:00 a.m. all patients had blood samples collected to assess serum concentrations of the studied parameters using the Elisa method.

Results: Depression became more severe as the concentration levels of MIP-1α, PMN elastase, MDA, and IL-12 changed.

Conclusion: Studied parameters can be used as markers of chronic stress in both depression and PTSD, either comorbid or alone, to make an early diagnosis and evaluate disease severity. Revealed changes confirm the presence of a biological response in depression.

Keywords: Depression; Interleukin-12; Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α; Malondialdehyde; Polymorphonuclear elastase.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chemokine CCL3 / blood*
  • Depression / blood*
  • Depression / complications
  • Depression / diagnosis
  • Depression / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood*
  • Interleukin-12 / blood*
  • Leukocyte Elastase / blood*
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / blood*
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / blood*
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / complications
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / diagnosis
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / psychology
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • CCL3 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukin-12
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Leukocyte Elastase