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. Winter 2017;23(1):78-87.
doi: 10.1310/sci2301-78.

Description of Urological Surveillance and Urologic Ultrasonography Outcomes in a Cohort of Individuals With Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury

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Free PMC article

Description of Urological Surveillance and Urologic Ultrasonography Outcomes in a Cohort of Individuals With Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury

Jacinthe J E Adriaansen et al. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have an increased risk of developing urological complications. Therefore, long-term routine urological surveillance is recommended. Objective: To describe urological surveillance in individuals with long-term SCI and to determine factors associated with urologic ultrasonography (UU) outcome. Methods: Wheelchair-dependent individuals with an SCI for 10 years or more were included. A medical assessment was done in 8 participating rehabilitation centers. The International Lower Urinary Tract Function Basic SCI Data Set was used to assess bladder-emptying methods and previous surgical procedures on the urinary tract. We studied urological surveillance: whether participants had routine urological checkups (including UU) and when latest urodynamic study was performed. Latest UU (performed <1 year ago) was retrieved or, when lacking, UU was performed as part of our study. Results: Median time since injury (TSI) was 22.0 years. Overall, 39% of the 282 participants did not have routine urological checkups and 33% never had a urodynamic study performed. UU data (N = 243) revealed dilatation of the upper urinary tract (UUT) in 4.5% of the participants and urinary stones in 5.7%. Abnormal UU outcome was associated with increasing TSI, nontraumatic SCI, and previous surgical bladder or UUT stone removal. UU outcome was not associated with routine urological checkups or type of bladder-emptying method. Conclusions: Over one-third of Dutch individuals with long-term SCI did not receive routine urological surveillance. UU outcome was not associated with routine urological checkups or type of bladder-emptying method. Further research on the indication and frequency of urological surveillance is recommended.

Keywords: long-term care; neurogenic; spinal cord injuries; ultrasonography; urinary bladder; urinary tract.

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