Development and pre-clinical evaluation in the swine model of a mucosal vaccine tablet for human influenza viruses: A proof-of-concept study

Int J Pharm. 2018 Mar 1;538(1-2):87-96. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.01.021. Epub 2018 Jan 16.


Liquid vaccine formulations present some disadvantages such as stability problems, cold chain requirement or administration by trained personnel. Vaccine formulated as tablets would present a wide range of progress such as an increase stability that would facilitate the administration, the distribution and the storage of vaccine formulations. This work investigates the possibility to develop a mucosal tablet vaccine for human influenza viruses. The tablets were tested in vitro for biological efficacy and stability and in vivo in swine as a model for influenza A virus immunity. First, the ability to produce by compaction a stable vaccine with a preserved antigen was demonstrated. In a second part, vaccine tablets were used to immunize pigs. After positioning the tablets on the buccal mucosa, the animals were challenged by inoculation of the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The responses were compared to those observed in animals vaccinated intramuscularly with the commercial liquid vaccine. It was observed signs of priming of the pig's immune system with vaccine tablets, even if the immune response stayed lower than vaccination by intramuscular route. Thus, we present attractive results that indicate a promising potential for mucosal vaccine tablets.

Keywords: Influenza virus; Mucosal vaccination; Pig; Pre-clinical evaluation; Vaccine tablet.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Male
  • Mouth Mucosa / metabolism*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / immunology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / virology
  • Swine
  • Tablets
  • Vaccination / methods


  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Tablets