Cancer cachexia is a syndrome that impairs the quality of life and overall survival of patients, and thus the effectiveness of anticancer agents. There are no effective therapies for cancer cachexia due to the complexity of the syndrome, and insufficient knowledge of its pathogenesis results in difficulty establishing appropriate animal models. Previously, promising results have been obtained in clinical trials using novel agents including the ghrelin receptor agonist anamorelin, and the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) enobosarm to treat cachexia in patients with cancer. The present study examined the pharmacological effects of SARM-2f, a novel non-steroidal small molecule SARM, in animal models. SARM-2f increased body and skeletal muscle weight without significantly increasing the weight of the seminal vesicles or prostates of the castrated male rats. In the mice with tumor necrosis factor α-induced cachexia, SARM-2f and TP restored body weight, carcass weight, and food consumption rate. In the C26 and G361 cancer cachexia animal models, body and carcass weight, lean body mass, and the weight of the levator ani muscle were increased by SARM-2f and TP treatments. Tissue selectivity of SARM-2f was also observed in these animal models. The results demonstrate the anabolic effects of SARM-2f in a cytokine-induced cachexia model and other cancer cachexia models, and suggest that SARM-2f may be a novel therapeutic option for cachexia in patients with cancer.
Keywords: androgen; anorexia; body weight loss; cancer cachexia; sarcopenia; selective androgen receptor modulator.