Men with primary and secondary unipolar major depression were divided into those with and without antisocial personality (ASP). The ASP depressives had a higher rate of alcoholism than the nonASP depressives, and among the nonASP depressives, those with drug abuse had a higher rate of alcoholism than those without drug abuse. The course of depression appeared to be related to the presence of nonaffective psychopathology. Depressed men with additional nonaffective disorders had fewer, but larger episodes than depressed men without, and depressed men with alcoholism had a higher risk of suicide. Our results confirm the close association of alcoholism and ASP and highlight the importance of recognizing nonaffective syndromes in the depressed patient.