Prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Ethiopia: a systemic review and meta-analysis

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018 Jan 18;18(1):34. doi: 10.1186/s12884-018-1667-7.


Background: Although hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the leading cause of poor perinatal outcomes in Ethiopia, there is no study that shows the national prevalence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the national pooled prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy from studies conducted in different parts of the country.

Methods: Databases; MEDLINE, PubMed, HINARI, EMBASE, Google Scholar and African Journals Online were searched by using different search terms on HDP and Ethiopia. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument was used for critical appraisal of studies. The analysis was done using STATA 14 software. The Cochran Q test and I2 test statistics were used to test heterogeneity of studies. Egger's test was used to show the publication bias. The pooled prevalence of HDP and the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval was presented using forest plots.

Result: Seventeen studies were included in this review, with a total of 258,602 pregnant women. The overall pooled prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Ethiopia was 6.07% (95% CI: 4.83%, 7.31%). The Subgroup analysis by region and year of study showed a higher prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, 10.13% (95% CI = (8.5, 12.43)), and reduction in the rate of HDP from 1990's to 2010's, 8.54% reducing to 5.71% respectively. The pooled prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and preeclampsia/eclampsia alone were 6.29 and 5.47 respectively. Pregnant women ≥ 35 years old are more likely to develop hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, OR = 1.64 (95% CI = (1.18, 2.28)). No statistically significant difference was observed between HDP and younger maternal age (less than 20 years old); OR = 2.92 (95% CI = (0.88, 9.70)). There was no association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and number of pregnancy, OR = 1.37 (95% CI = 0.78, 2.41)).

Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is high in Ethiopia. The problem is more common among older pregnant women (> 35 years old). Government and other stakeholders should give due attention to an early screening of hypertension during pregnancy.

Keywords: Eclampsia; Ethiopia; Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; Meta-analysis; Preeclampsia; Prevalence; Systemic review.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Ethiopia / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced / epidemiology*
  • Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced / etiology
  • Maternal Age
  • Odds Ratio
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult