Background: Conventional approaches to participant recruitment are often inadequate in rare disease investigation. Social networking sites such as Facebook may provide a vehicle to circumvent common research limitations and pitfalls. We report our preliminary experience with Facebook-based methodology for participant recruitment and participation into an ongoing study of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).
Objective: The goal of our research was to conduct a pilot study to assess whether a Facebook-based methodology is capable of recruiting geographically widespread participants into AIH patient-oriented research and obtaining quality phenotypic data.
Methods: We established a Facebook community, the Autoimmune Hepatitis Research Network (AHRN), in 2014 to provide a secure and reputable distillation of current literature and AIH research opportunities. Quarterly advertisements for our ongoing observational AIH study were posted on the AHRN over 2 years. Interested and self-reported AIH participants were subsequently enrolled after review of study materials and completion of an informed consent by our study coordinator. Participants returned completed study materials, including epidemiologic questionnaires and genetic material, to our facility via mail. Outside medical records were obtained and reviewed by a study physician.
Results: We successfully obtained all study materials from 29 participants with self-reported AIH within 2 years from 20 different states. Liver biopsy results were available for 90% (26/29) of participants, of which 81% (21/29) had findings consistent with AIH, 15% (4/29) were suggestive of AIH with features of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and 4% (1/29) had PBC alone. A total of 83% (24/29) had at least 2 of 3 proposed criteria: positive autoimmune markers, consistent histologic findings of AIH on liver biopsy, and reported treatment with immunosuppressant medications. Self-reported and physician records were discrepant for immunosuppressant medications or for AIH/PBC diagnoses in 4 patients.
Conclusions: Facebook can be an effective ancillary tool for facilitating patient-oriented research in rare diseases. A social media-based approach transcends established limitations in rare disease research and can further develop research communities.
Keywords: autoimmune hepatitis; rare disease; social media.
©Megan Comerford, Rachel Fogel, James Robert Bailey, Prianka Chilukuri, Naga Chalasani, Craig Steven Lammert. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 18.01.2018.