Cadmium (Cd) is a pollutant with multiple adverse health effects: cancer, renal dysfunction, osteoporosis and fracture, and cardiovascular disease. Several population-based studies found an association between Cd and diabetes mellitus (DM), but this association is inconsistent with other research. We conducted meta-analysis to examine relationship between urinary/blood Cd exposure and DM risk. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases, and combined odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to evaluate said association. Meta-analysis showed that high U-Cd exposure is not correlated with DM risk (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 0.83-1.71), and high B-Cd exposure is also not associated with increased risk of DM (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.84-1.62) in the general population. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis proved similar results, with little evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that high U-Cd/B-Cd exposure may not be risk factor for DM in general populations. However, large prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.
Keywords: cadmium; diabetes mellitus.