Platelets regulate vascular integrity by secreting a host of molecules that promote hemostasis and its sequelae. Given the importance of platelet exocytosis, it is critical to understand how it is controlled. The t-SNAREs, SNAP-23 and syntaxin-11, lack classical transmembrane domains (TMDs), yet both are associated with platelet membranes and redistributed into cholesterol-dependent lipid rafts when platelets are activated. Using metabolic labeling and hydroxylamine (HA)/HCl treatment, we showed that both contain thioester-linked acyl groups. Mass spectrometry mapping further showed that syntaxin-11 was modified on cysteine 275, 279, 280, 282, 283, and 285, and SNAP-23 was modified on cysteine 79, 80, 83, 85, and 87. Interestingly, metabolic labeling studies showed incorporation of [3H]palmitate into the t-SNAREs increased although the protein levels were unchanged, suggesting that acylation turns over on the two t-SNAREs in resting platelets. Exogenously added fatty acids did compete with [3H]palmitate for t-SNARE labeling. To determine the effects of acylation, we measured aggregation, ADP/ATP release, as well as P-selectin exposure in platelets treated with the acyltransferase inhibitor cerulenin or the thioesterase inhibitor palmostatin B. We found that cerulenin pretreatment inhibited t-SNARE acylation and platelet function in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas palmostatin B had no detectable effect. Interestingly, pretreatment with palmostatin B blocked the inhibitory effects of cerulenin, suggesting that maintaining the acylation state is important for platelet function. Thus, our work shows that t-SNARE acylation is actively cycling in platelets and suggests that the enzymes regulating protein acylation could be potential targets to control platelet exocytosis in vivo.
Keywords: SNAP-23; acyltransferase; cardiovascular; cerulenin; lipid raft; membrane fusion; palmostatin B; posttranslational modification (PTM); syntaxin; thrombosis.
© 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.