The Old World non-human primates (NHP) - baboons (Papio spp.) share similarities with humans regarding fetal and placental development and some pregnancy-related complications. Information about the mechanism of birth and complications arising during parturition in these species is relatively sparse. In this manuscript, we add information from a series of pathological and observational cases to highlight insights and selected complications of birth in Papio spp, based on video-recording of the delivery process, X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound evaluations in pregnant baboons. Additionally, we abstracted pathology records obtained from perinatal loss in a large baboon colony during a 17 year period. The presented cases provide important information for the management of pregnancy and delivery in Papio spp.