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Review
. 2018 Jul;63(4):413-432.
doi: 10.1007/s12223-018-0585-4. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Recent Perspectives on the Molecular Basis of Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Approaches for Treatment and Biofilm Dispersal

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Review

Recent Perspectives on the Molecular Basis of Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Approaches for Treatment and Biofilm Dispersal

Sinosh Skariyachan et al. Folia Microbiol (Praha). .

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium causes widespread diseases in humans. This bacterium is frequently related to nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacteriaemia especially in immunocompromised patients. The current review focuses on the recent perspectives on biofilms formation by these bacteria. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often adhere to a surface. These adherent cells are usually embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Pel, psl and alg operons present in P. aeruginosa are responsible for the biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharide which plays an important role in cell surface interactions during biofilm formation. Recent studies suggested that cAMP signalling pathway, quorum-sensing pathway, Gac/Rsm pathway and c-di-GMP signalling pathway are the main mechanism that leads to the biofilm formation. Understanding the bacterial virulence depends on a number of cell-associated and extracellular factors and is very essential for the development of potential drug targets. Thus, the review focuses on the major genes involved in the biofilm formation, the state of art update on the biofilm treatment and the dispersal approaches such as targeting adhesion and maturation, targeting virulence factors and other strategies such as small molecule-based inhibitors, phytochemicals, bacteriophage therapy, photodynamic therapy, antimicrobial peptides and natural therapies and vaccines to curtail the biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: Alginate; Biofilm dispersal; Biofilms; EPS; Gac/Rsm pathway; Pel; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Psl; Quorum-sensing pathway; Treatment advancement; c-di-GMP signalling pathway.

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