Renal recovery after dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D) is an important clinical and patient-centered outcome. Here we examined whether the pre-admission proteinuria level independently influences risk for non-recovery after AKI-D in a community-based population. All adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California who experienced AKI-D between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2015 were included. Pre-admission proteinuria levels were determined by dipstick up to four years before the AKI-D hospitalization and the outcome was renal recovery (survival and dialysis-independence four weeks and more) at 90 days after initiation of renal replacement therapy. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), age, sex, ethnicity, short-term predicted risk of death, comorbidities, and medication use. Among 5,347 adults with AKI-D, the mean age was 66 years, 59% were men, and 50% were white. Compared with negative/trace proteinuria, the adjusted odds ratios for non-recovery (continued dialysis-dependence or death) were 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.19-1.82) for 1+ proteinuria and 1.92 (1.54-2.38) for 2+ or more proteinuria. Among survivors, the crude probability of recovery ranged from 83% for negative/trace proteinuria with baseline eGFR over 60 mL/min/1.73m2 to 25% for 2+ or more proteinuria with eGFR 15-29 mL/min/1.73m2. Thus, the pre-AKI-D level of proteinuria is a graded, independent risk factor for non-recovery and helps to improve short-term risk stratification for patients with AKI-D.
Keywords: dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury; proteinuria; renal recovery; risk factor.
Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.