Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Contributes to Early Healing of Habu Snake Venom-Induced Glomerulonephritis in Mice

Am J Pathol. 2018 Apr;188(4):863-875. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.12.012. Epub 2018 Jan 17.


Proliferative glomerulonephritis is characterized by local inflammation and mesangial cell deterioration, followed by mesangial proliferation and glomerular healing. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is a mesangial cytokine-like growth factor implicated in mesangial proliferation and survival. No data are available about its role in glomerulonephritis. Herein, we analyzed the expression and role of PTHrP in glomerular inflammation and healing in an experimental model of glomerulonephritis induced by i.v. injection of Habu snake venom in mice. The temporal analysis showed marked renal damage in the first days after venom injection and the beginning of recovery within 7 days. Glomerular expression of PTHrP (transcript and protein) was observed in the early phase after venom injection (from day 1 to day 3), along with an inflammatory environment. The inactivation of secreted PTHrP with PTHrP-neutralizing antibody (PTH2E11; 120 μg i.p. daily) reduced the markers of local inflammation (expression of macrophage chemotactic protein-1; regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; cyclooxygenase 2; IL-6; and macrophage infiltration) and abolished the expression of PTHrP itself. Moreover, the glomerular cell proliferation was hampered, and the healing process was prevented on day 7 after venom injection. These results show that PTHrP has antinomic actions in glomerulonephritis, participating in both the proinflammatory condition and the healing process. Our work reveals the essential role of PTHrP in early glomerular repair in an experimental model of glomerulonephritis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / pharmacology
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Crotalid Venoms / administration & dosage
  • Glomerulonephritis / blood
  • Glomerulonephritis / chemically induced*
  • Glomerulonephritis / metabolism*
  • Glomerulonephritis / pathology
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Injections
  • Kidney Glomerulus / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism*
  • Trimeresurus


  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Crotalid Venoms
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
  • Creatinine