Decreases in psychological well-being among American adolescents after 2012 and links to screen time during the rise of smartphone technology

Emotion. 2018 Sep;18(6):765-780. doi: 10.1037/emo0000403. Epub 2018 Jan 22.


In nationally representative yearly surveys of United States 8th, 10th, and 12th graders 1991-2016 (N = 1.1 million), psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on nonscreen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psychological well-being. Adolescents spending a small amount of time on electronic communication were the happiest. Psychological well-being was lower in years when adolescents spent more time on screens and higher in years when they spent more time on nonscreen activities, with changes in activities generally preceding declines in well-being. Cyclical economic indicators such as unemployment were not significantly correlated with well-being, suggesting that the Great Recession was not the cause of the decrease in psychological well-being, which may instead be at least partially due to the rapid adoption of smartphones and the subsequent shift in adolescents' time use. (PsycINFO Database Record

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Female
  • Happiness
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Internet / history
  • Internet / statistics & numerical data*
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Male
  • Personal Satisfaction
  • Psychology, Adolescent / history
  • Psychology, Adolescent / trends*
  • Self Concept
  • Smartphone / history
  • Smartphone / statistics & numerical data*
  • Social Media / statistics & numerical data
  • Text Messaging / statistics & numerical data
  • United States