Baseline and Serial Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level Predicts 5-Year Overall Survival in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Data From the REVEAL Registry

Chest. 2018 Jul;154(1):126-135. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2018.01.009. Epub 2018 Jan 31.


Background: Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level is a prognostic biomarker in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Its impact on long-term overall survival (OS) was investigated in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL), a 5-year observational, multicenter, US registry of patients with PAH.

Methods: Patients were ≥ 18 years of age, met right heart catheterization criteria at rest, had World Health Organization group I PAH, and had BNP measurement at enrollment. Optimal BNP threshold was obtained via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. OS was compared in patients with low (≤ 340 pg/mL) vs high (> 340 pg/mL) BNP at baseline; changes between baseline and last assessment were also examined. Patients were categorized based on baseline (low or high) and follow-up (low or high) BNP values; hazard ratios (HRs) for OS were estimated and compared using Cox regression.

Results: Overall, 1,426 patients were analyzed. Mortality risk was significantly higher in patients with baseline high vs low BNP (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 3.0-4.2). BNP change analysis at ≤ 1 year postenrollment demonstrated that the low-low group had the lowest and the high-high group had the highest 5-year mortality risk (HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.19-0.27). Changes in BNP score also correlated with change of risk of death.

Conclusions: Baseline BNP threshold of 340 pg/mL strongly predicted survival up to 5 years in patients with PAH. A BNP reduction at 1 year since enrollment was associated with decreased mortality risk, whereas an increase in BNP at 1 year was associated with an increased mortality risk, supporting BNP as a surrogate marker of PAH survival.

Keywords: biomarkers; brain natriuretic peptide; mortality; pulmonary arterial hypertension; survival.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / blood*
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / mortality
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / blood*
  • Prognosis
  • Pulmonary Wedge Pressure / physiology*
  • Registries*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment / methods*
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate / trends
  • Time Factors
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Biomarkers
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain