The Early Psychosis Screener (EPS): Quantitative validation against the SIPS using machine learning

Schizophr Res. 2018 Jul:197:516-521. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.11.030. Epub 2018 Jan 19.


Machine learning techniques were used to identify highly informative early psychosis self-report items and to validate an early psychosis screener (EPS) against the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS). The Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Version (PQ-B) and 148 additional items were administered to 229 individuals being screened with the SIPS at 7 North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study sites and at Columbia University. Fifty individuals were found to have SIPS scores of 0, 1, or 2, making them clinically low risk (CLR) controls; 144 were classified as clinically high risk (CHR) (SIPS 3-5) and 35 were found to have first episode psychosis (FEP) (SIPS 6). Spectral clustering analysis, performed on 124 of the items, yielded two cohesive item groups, the first mostly related to psychosis and mania, the second mostly related to depression, anxiety, and social and general work/school functioning. Items within each group were sorted according to their usefulness in distinguishing between CLR and CHR individuals using the Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance procedure. A receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) analysis indicated that maximal differentiation of CLR and CHR participants was achieved with a 26-item solution (AUC=0.899±0.001). The EPS-26 outperformed the PQ-B (AUC=0.834±0.001). For screening purposes, the self-report EPS-26 appeared to differentiate individuals who are either CLR or CHR approximately as well as the clinician-administered SIPS. The EPS-26 may prove useful as a self-report screener and may lead to a decrease in the duration of untreated psychosis. A validation of the EPS-26 against actual conversion is underway.

Keywords: Machine learning; NAPLS; PQ-B; Prodromal; Psychosis; SIPS; Schizophrenia; Screener.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interview, Psychological
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Machine Learning*
  • Male
  • Prodromal Symptoms*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / standards*
  • Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Risk
  • Schizophrenia / diagnosis*
  • Self Report / standards*
  • Young Adult