Evaluating the Relationship between Vancomycin Trough Concentration and 24-Hour Area under the Concentration-Time Curve in Neonates

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Mar 27;62(4):e01647-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01647-17. Print 2018 Apr.


Bacterial sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially those involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommend the vancomycin 24-h area under the concentration-time curve to MIC ratio (AUC24/MIC) of >400 as the best predictor of successful treatment against MRSA infections when the MIC is ≤1 mg/liter. The relationship between steady-state vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC24 values (mg·h/liter) has not been studied in an Asian neonatal population. We conducted a retrospective chart review in Singapore hospitals and collected patient characteristics and therapeutic drug monitoring data from neonates on vancomycin therapy over a 5-year period. A one-compartment population pharmacokinetic model was built from the collected data, internally validated, and then used to assess the relationship between steady-state trough concentrations and AUC24 A Monte Carlo simulation sensitivity analysis was also conducted. A total of 76 neonates with 429 vancomycin concentrations were included for analysis. Median (interquartile range) was 30 weeks (28 to 36 weeks) for postmenstrual age (PMA) and 1,043 g (811 to 1,919 g) for weight at the initiation of treatment. Vancomycin clearance was predicted by weight, PMA, and serum creatinine. For MRSA isolates with a vancomycin MIC of ≤1, our major finding was that the minimum steady-state trough concentration range predictive of achieving an AUC24/MIC of >400 was 8 to 8.9 mg/liter. Steady-state troughs within 15 to 20 mg/liter are unlikely to be necessary to achieve an AUC24/MIC of >400, whereas troughs within 10 to 14.9 mg/liter may be more appropriate.

Keywords: AUC; MRSA; Monte Carlo simulation; neonatal intensive care unit; neonatal sepsis; neonates; pharmacokinetics; population pharmacokinetic model; target trough; vancomycin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sepsis / microbiology
  • Sepsis / prevention & control
  • Vancomycin / pharmacology*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Vancomycin