Association of obesity with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in India: A meta-analysis of observational studies

World J Diabetes. 2018 Jan 15;9(1):40-52. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v9.i1.40.


Aim: To perform a meta-analysis of the association of obesity with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in India among adults.

Methods: To conduct meta-analysis, we performed comprehensive, electronic literature search in the PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and Google Scholar. We restricted the analysis to studies with documentation of some measure of obesity namely; body mass index, waist-hip ratio, waist circumference and diagnosis of hypertension or diagnosis of T2DM. By obtaining summary estimates of all included studies, the meta-analysis was performed using both RevMan version 5 and "metan" command STATA version 11. Heterogeneity was measured by I2 statistic. Funnel plot analysis has been done to assess the study publication bias.

Results: Of the 956 studies screened, 18 met the eligibility criteria. The pooled odds ratio between obesity and hypertension was 3.82 (95%CI: 3.39 to 4.25). The heterogeneity around this estimate (I2 statistic) was 0%, indicating low variability. The pooled odds ratio from the included studies showed a statistically significant association between obesity and T2DM (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.24) with a high degree of variability.

Conclusion: Despite methodological differences, obesity showed significant, potentially plausible association with hypertension and T2DM in studies conducted in India. Being a modifiable risk factor, our study informs setting policy priority and intervention efforts to prevent debilitating complications.

Keywords: Hypertension; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.