Influence of the oral status on cardiovascular diseases in an older Italian population

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. Jan-Dec 2018;32:394632017751786. doi: 10.1177/0394632017751786.

Abstract

Oral diseases have been adversely associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are also the most frequent cause of death in older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association among oral status indexes and CVD in patients aged more than 65 years attending in the Oral department of a public hospital Policlinico Umberto 1 of Rome. The study population consisted of 533 patients. Dental status was detected measuring the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) indexes. The chi-square test with a 95% confidence level was used to assess qualitative variables. Odds ratios (ORs) and stepwise logistic regression were used to calculate risk estimates; the independent variables: age, gender, DMFT, CPI index, Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) score, and tooth loss were included in the statistical model. P value <0.05 was considered a statistically significant cut-off. No differences were found between females and males for DMFT and CPI. GOHAI data were worst for females. Patients with CVD had less education and oral care ( P < 0.05), and higher CPI index and number of missing teeth ( P < 0.05). Data show that patients with more than 18 missing teeth have 2.5 times greater risk of CVD. CVDs are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, underweight, and obesity ( P < 0.05). From the findings of this study, it can be confirmed a significant link between CVD and oral health. A cooperation among geriatrician, cardiologist, and dentist is suitable to counteract the development of CVD and to early identify patients at risk of CVD.

Keywords: Community Periodontal Index; Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index; cardiovascular diseases; oral health.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Oral Health / trends*
  • Periodontal Diseases / complications
  • Periodontal Diseases / diagnosis
  • Periodontal Diseases / epidemiology
  • Periodontal Index*
  • Population Surveillance* / methods
  • Tooth Loss / complications
  • Tooth Loss / diagnosis
  • Tooth Loss / epidemiology*