Effects of washing, soaking and domestic cooking on cadmium, arsenic and lead bioaccessibilities in rice

J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Aug;98(10):3829-3835. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8897. Epub 2018 Mar 12.


Background: The health risk of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) in rice can be assessed by their concentration and bioaccessibility. In this work, japonica cultivar Xinfeng 2 and indica cultivar T-You 15 were washed, soaked and cooked using three common domestic cooking methods. The present study investigated the effects of washing, soaking, normal cooking, high-pressure cooking and microwave cooking on the concentration, bioaccessibility and health risk of Cd, As and Pb in rice.

Results: Washing significantly reduced concentrations of Cd, As and Pb, and all three types of cooking reduced bioaccessibilities of these elements. No significant differences in bioaccessibility were observed among rice prepared with different cooking methods. Concentrations and bioaccessibilities of Cd, As and Pb highly affected the values of average daily dose, hazard quotient and lifetime cancer risk. High concentration and bioaccessibility cause As to pose non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to adults and children. Moreover, compared with adults, children have a high chance of exposure to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks.

Conclusion: Washing and cooking of rice lowered the health risk by reducing Cd, As and Pb concentrations and bioaccessibilities respectively. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: bioaccessibility; health risk assessment; heavy metals; rice cooking.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Arsenic / analysis*
  • Arsenic / metabolism
  • Biological Availability
  • Cadmium / analysis*
  • Cadmium / metabolism
  • Cooking / instrumentation
  • Cooking / methods
  • Food Contamination / analysis
  • Food Handling / instrumentation
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lead / analysis*
  • Lead / metabolism
  • Oryza / chemistry*
  • Oryza / metabolism
  • Risk Assessment


  • Cadmium
  • Lead
  • Arsenic