Purpose To determine the effect that R132H mutation status of diffuse glioma has on extent of vascular dysregulation and extent of residual blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) abnormality after surgical resection. Materials and Methods This study was an institutional review board-approved retrospective analysis of an institutional database of patients, and informed consent was waived. From 2010 to 2017, 39 treatment-naïve patients with diffuse glioma underwent preoperative echo-planar imaging and BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging. BOLD vascular dysregulation maps were made by identifying voxels with time series similar to tumor and dissimilar to healthy brain. The spatial overlap between tumor and vascular dysregulation was characterized by using the Dice coefficient, and areas of BOLD abnormality outside the tumor margins were quantified as BOLD-only fraction (BOF). Linear regression was used to assess effects of R132H status on the Dice coefficient, BOF, and residual BOLD abnormality after surgical resection. Results When compared with R132H wild-type (R132H-) gliomas, R132H-mutated (R132H+) gliomas showed greater spatial overlap between BOLD abnormality and tumor (mean Dice coefficient, 0.659 ± 0.02 [standard error] for R132H+ and 0.327 ± 0.04 for R132H-; P < .001), less BOLD abnormality beyond the tumor margin (mean BOF, 0.255 ± 0.03 for R132H+ and 0.728 ± 0.04 for R132H-; P < .001), and less postoperative BOLD abnormality (residual fraction, 0.046 ± 0.0047 for R132H+ and 0.397 ± 0.045 for R132H-; P < .001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed high sensitivity and specificity in the discrimination of R132H+ tumors from R132H- tumors with calculation of both Dice coefficient and BOF (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.967 and 0.977, respectively). Conclusion R132H mutation status is an important variable affecting the extent of tumor-associated vascular dysregulation and the residual vascular dysregulation after surgical resection. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.