Schizencephaly in children: A single medical center retrospective study

Pediatr Neonatol. 2018 Dec;59(6):573-580. doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2018.01.009. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, and neuroimaging features, outcomes, and other associated systemic disorders in children with schizencephaly at a single medical center in Taiwan.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of children with schizencephaly between January 2000 and December 2014. The MRI findings of schizencephaly were recorded along with the presence of associated cerebral disorders. Clinical, electroencephalographic and additional systemic disorders were also recorded.

Results: A total of 21 patients (13 males and 8 females) were included in the study. According to the location of schizencephaly, the patients were classified into two groups: unilateral (n = 16) and bilateral (n = 5). The majority of the patients with neurological deficits were detected before 1 year of age, especially in bilateral clefts. The most common initial presentation was hemiparesis in unilateral schizencephaly, and seizures in bilateral schizencephalies. Ventriculomegaly was the most common associated cerebral disorder, and the most common additional systemic disorders included congenital heart disease, hydronephrosis, and strabismus. Seventeen patients suffered from epileptic seizures with generalized tonic-clonic seizures being the most common. Eight patients developed refractory epilepsy. The majority of the patients had motor deficits, intellectual disabilities, and language deficits, especially in bilateral clefts.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the clinical features of schizencephaly vary widely, with their severity closely related to the cleft. Determining the type, size, and extent of schizencephaly is useful to plan management and predict the prognosis.

Keywords: associated; cerebral; congenital; disorders.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Electroencephalography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intellectual Disability / etiology
  • Language Development Disorders / etiology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Motor Skills Disorders / etiology
  • Neuroimaging
  • Paresis / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Schizencephaly / diagnostic imaging*
  • Seizures / etiology