The most common type of lung cancer is adenocarcinoma (ADC), comprising around 40% of all lung cancer cases. In spite of achievements in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease and the development of new approaches in its treatment, unfortunately, lung ADC is still one of the most aggressive and rapidly fatal tumor types with overall survival less than 5 years. Lung ADC is often diagnosed at advanced stages involving disseminated metastatic tumors. This is particularly important for the successful development of new approaches in cancer therapy. The high resistance of lung ADC to conventional radiotherapies and chemotherapies represents a major challenge for treatment effectiveness. Here we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular pathways driving tumor progression and related targeted therapies in lung ADCs. In addition, the cell death mechanisms induced by different treatment strategies and their contribution to therapy resistance are analyzed. The focus is on approaches to overcoming drug resistance in order to improve future treatment decisions.