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Review
. 2018 Jan 26;19(2):379.
doi: 10.3390/ijms19020379.

Galectin-3: One Molecule for an Alphabet of Diseases, From A to Z

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Free PMC article
Review

Galectin-3: One Molecule for an Alphabet of Diseases, From A to Z

Salvatore Sciacchitano et al. Int J Mol Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Galectin-3 (Gal-3) regulates basic cellular functions such as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, growth, proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. It is not surprising, therefore, that this protein is involved in the pathogenesis of many relevant human diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, chronic inflammation and scarring affecting many different tissues. The papers published in the literature have progressively increased in number during the last decades, testifying the great interest given to this protein by numerous researchers involved in many different clinical contexts. Considering the crucial role exerted by Gal-3 in many different clinical conditions, Gal-3 is emerging as a new diagnostic, prognostic biomarker and as a new promising therapeutic target. The current review aims to extensively examine the studies published so far on the role of Gal-3 in all the clinical conditions and diseases, listed in alphabetical order, where it was analyzed.

Keywords: Gal-3; Galectin-3.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
The structure of the galectin family members. The galectin family members are divided into three types: The prototype with one carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), the tandem-repeat type with two CRDs connected by a non-conserved linker, and the chimeric type with one CRD and a non-lectin N-terminal domain (ND). Some galectins can self-associate into dimers or oligomers.
Figure 2
Figure 2
PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine, Medical Institutes of Health) records on academic publications on Gal-3, total 8289 items by December 2017. Search Strategy MESH terms: Galectin 3 or Gal-3 or Advanced Glycation End-Product Receptor 3 or Lectin, Galactoside-Binding, Soluble, 3 or Carbohydrate-Binding Protein 35 (CBP 35) or Galactose-Specific Lectin 3 or Laminin-Binding Protein or IgE-Binding Protein or Lectin L-29.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Conditions and diseases in which a role for Gal-3 has been postulated, listed in alphabetical order.

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