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, 4 (6), 061602
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Perspective: Opportunities for Ultrafast Science at SwissFEL

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Perspective: Opportunities for Ultrafast Science at SwissFEL

Rafael Abela et al. Struct Dyn.

Abstract

We present the main specifications of the newly constructed Swiss Free Electron Laser, SwissFEL, and explore its potential impact on ultrafast science. In light of recent achievements at current X-ray free electron lasers, we discuss the potential territory for new scientific breakthroughs offered by SwissFEL in Chemistry, Biology, and Materials Science, as well as nonlinear X-ray science.

Figures

FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.
Layout of the experimental area of the SwissFEL building.
FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.
HEROS spectra of Cu metal for 2000 self-seeded shots (black curve). The error bars represent the standard deviation of the total counts. For comparison, we plot the calculated spectrum using the Kramers-Heisenberg relation and a Cu K-edge XAS spectrum recorded at a synchrotron facility shown in inset. The calculated curve represents the sum of two spectra relating to the final electronic states of 2p3/2 and 2p1/2. Reproduced with the permission from Struct. Dyn. 1, 021101 (2014). Copyright 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.
Dynamical response of the (5 –5/2 2) superlattice reflection in the ground state of a thin film of La1-xCaxMnO3 (x = 0.58) to ultrashort pulse excitation at 800 nm. The observed dynamics for an intermediate fluence of ∼1 mJ/cm2 are dominated by a strong ∼2.5 THz oscillation, which is the slowest of several coherent optical modes observed when these materials are excited with very short optical pulses (a) data obtained at the SLS slicing source [reproduced with permission from Beaud et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(15), 155702 (2009). Copyright 2009American Physical Society] and; (b) same, re-measured four years later at the XPP instrument at LCLS.
FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.
Images of resonant X-ray diffraction on CuO taken from Ref. , 1 ps before excitation (upper panel) and 100 ps after excitation (lower panel). Reproduced with permission from Johnson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(3), 037203 (2012). Copyright 2012 American Physical Society.
FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.
Serial crystallography at free electron lasers revealed the importance of water 402 in the early stages of bacteriorhodopsin (bR). (a) Structure of bR with a schematic outline of the Proton-exchange steps (arrows) achieving proton pumping by bR. (b) Schematic illustration of retinal covalently bound to Lys216 through a protonated Schiff base (SB) in an all-trans and a 13-cis configuration (upper panel) and 2mFobs – DFcalc electron density for the bR active site in its resting conformation. Electron density (gray) is contoured at 1.3 s (s is the root mean square electron density of the map). W400, W401, and W402 denote water molecules (lower panel). (c) Overview of all time points obtained with serial crystallography. (d) View of the |Fobs|light – |Fobs|dark difference Fourier electron density map near the retinal 16 and 290 ns upon activation. Blue indicates positive difference electron density, yellow a negative difference. The strong decrease in electron density at water 402 × 16 ns is clearly visible and further increased at 290 ns indicating a complete disordering of this water during the early activation phase. Reproduced with permission from Nango et al., Science 354(6319), 1552–1557 (2016). Copyright 2016 AAAS.
FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.
Schematic of an XUV-TG FWM excitation, using an optical probe and the XUV wavelength at the Si L-edge. Inlays depict a schematic of the grating formation by the two pulse interference and a typical XUV-TG signal from Si3N4.

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