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. 2018 Jan 30;13(1):e0192077.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192077. eCollection 2018.

Virologic Outcome Among Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy at Five Hospitals in Haiti

Free PMC article

Virologic Outcome Among Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy at Five Hospitals in Haiti

Frantz Jean Louis et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article


Introduction: Viral load (VL) assessment is the preferred method for diagnosing and confirming virologic failure for patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to evaluate the virologic suppression rate among patients on ART for ≥6 months in five hospitals around Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Methods: Plasma VL was measured and patients with VL <1,000 copies/mL were defined as virologically suppressed. A second VL test was performed within at least six months of the first test. Factors associated with virologic suppression were analyzed using logistic regression models accounting for site-level clustering using complex survey procedures.

Results: Data were analyzed for 2,313 patients on ART for six months or longer between July 2013 and February 2015. Among them, 1,563 (67.6%) achieved virologic suppression at the first VL test. A second VL test was performed within at least six months for 718 (31.0%) of the patients. Of the 459 patients with an initial HIV-1 RNA <1,000 copies/mL who had a second VL performed, 394 (85.8%) maintained virologic suppression. Virologic suppression was negatively associated with male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.74-0.0.86), 23 to 35 months on ART (aOR:0.72[0.54-0.96]), baseline CD4 counts of 201-500 cells/mm3 and 200 cells/mm3 or lower (aORs: 0.77 [0.62-0.95] and 0.80 [0.66-0.98], respectively), poor adherence (aOR: 0.69 [0.59-0.81]), and TB co-infection (aOR: 0.73 [0.55-0.97]).

Conclusions: This study showed that over two-thirds of the patients in this evaluation achieved virologic suppression after ≥ six months on ART and the majority of them remained suppressed. These results reinforce the importance of expanding access to HIV-1 viral load testing in Haiti for monitoring ART outcomes.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Fig 1
Fig 1. Flowchart describing the number of patients with first and second VL test and percent of virologic suppression among them.

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Grant support

This evaluation was supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under the terms of PS003183-04 and in part by an appointment to the Research Participation Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education through an interagency agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and CDC. The findings and conclusions of this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the CDC. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.