Highly potent antioxidant Olea europaea L. leaf extract affects carotid and renal haemodynamics in experimental hypertension: The role of oleuropein

EXCLI J. 2018 Jan 4:17:29-44. doi: 10.17179/excli2017-1002. eCollection 2018.

Abstract

Haemodynamic alterations in carotid and renal arteries are associated with the severity of target organ damage in patients with hypertension. Dietary habits, such as the Mediterranean diet, regulate blood pressure and oxidative stress, thus reduce the mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the reducing activity, antioxidant capacity and metal chelating ability of standardized Olea europaea L. leaf extract (OLE), and to test its (5, 25, 50 mg/kg) acute in vivo effects, as well as oleuropein's (OP, 10 mg/kg) on oxidative stress, carotid, renal and systemic haemodynamic parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, peripheral resistance) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). OLE has a higher antioxidative capacity than BHT, higher reducing ability than vitamin C, and 23 times lower capacity for metal ion chelation than EDTA. All three doses of OLE, and OP, improved oxidative stress in SHR. OLE5 improved carotid and renal haemodynamics, without significant effects on systemic haemodynamics. Two different mechanisms of antihypertensive responses to OLE were observed, OLE25 was most effective in reducing cardiovascular risks by improving systemic and regional (carotid and renal) haemodynamics, peripheral and regional vascular resistance. OLE50 causes the improvement of blood pressure and cardiac performances, but tends to retain elevated vascular resistance, therefore, reducing the inflow of blood into the brain and kidneys of the SHR. The OP did not alter systemic or regional haemodynamics, suggesting others constituents responsible for changes of cardiac function, as well as carotid and renal haemodynamics in response to OLE50.

Keywords: blood pressure; oleuropein; olive leaf extract; oxidative stress; vascular resistance.