Cyclic fatigue resistances of Hyflex EDM, WaveOne gold, Reciproc blue and 2shape NiTi rotary files in different artificial canals

Odontology. 2018 Oct;106(4):408-413. doi: 10.1007/s10266-018-0340-y. Epub 2018 Jan 30.


The aim of the present study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of HyFlex EDM (HEDM), WaveOne Gold (WOG), Reciproc Blue (RB), and 2Shape (TS) NiTi systems having different metallurgic properties. HEDM, WOG, RB, and TS instruments were rotated in artificial canals which were made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, 45°, and 90° angles of curvatures and a radius of curvature of 5 mm until fracture occurred, and the time to fracture (TTF) was recorded in seconds. Also, number of cycles to fracture was calculated (NCF). Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and t test. The statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05. When comparing the TTF of all the instruments tested in the artificial canal with 45° curvature, RB had statistically the highest cyclic fatigue resistance followed by HEDM and TS (P < 0.05), while the WOG showed the lowest cyclic fatigue resistance (P < 0.05). In artificial canal with 90° curvature, RB showed a significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than the other tested files (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference among the TS, WOG and HEDM groups (P > 0.05). When the NCF values were taken into consideration, HEDM reported a significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than TS in both canal curvatures analyzed (P < 0.05). Within the limitations of the present study, RB NiTi files showed statistically higher cyclic fatigue resistance in artificial canals with 45° and 90° than the other NiTi files tested.

Keywords: 2Shape; Cyclic fatigue; HyFlex EDM; Reciproc blue; WaveOne gold.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Dental Instruments*
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis*
  • Materials Testing
  • Nickel / chemistry*
  • Root Canal Preparation / instrumentation*
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Time Factors
  • Titanium / chemistry*


  • titanium nickelide
  • Nickel
  • Titanium