Dietary patterns, dietary biomarkers, and kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a repeated-measure study in Taiwan

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(2):366-374. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.042017.15.


Background and objectives: Western dietary patterns have been linked with kidney disease. This study investigated the association between Chinese dietary patterns and kidney disease in a Taiwanese population with type 2 diabetes and evaluated dietary fatty acid patterns, a kidney-related dietary biomarker.

Methods and study design: We recruited 838 patients with type 2 diabetes and used their dietary and renal data obtained from three repeated measures in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Diet was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires, and factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. Albuminuria was defined by having an albumin-to-creatinine ratio >=30 mg/g and kidney dysfunction by estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate ORs (95% CIs) of kidney disease adjusted for covariates. Erythrocyte fatty acids were only measured in blood samples collected in 2008.

Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: high fat-meat, traditional Chinese food-snack, and fish-vegetable. In the adjusted model, the high fat-meat and traditional Chinese food-snack diets were not associated with any kidney outcomes. The fishvegetable diet was inversely associated with kidney dysfunction (quartile 4 vs 1, OR: 0.75, 0.58-0.97), but not associated with albuminuria. A higher fish-vegetable diet factor score was associated with higher n-3 fatty acid levels.

Conclusion: In patients with diabetes, we found greater adherence to a fish-vegetable diet to be associated with better kidney function and greater n-3 fatty acid profiles. The inclusion of repeated dietary assessments and dietary biomarker measurements in future diet-disease research, especially in patient populations, may provide more definitive risk evaluation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Taiwan / epidemiology


  • Biomarkers