Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are diverse, nanoscale membrane vesicles actively released by cells. Similar-sized vesicles can be further classified (e.g., exosomes, microvesicles) based on their biogenesis, size, and biophysical properties. Although initially thought to be cellular debris, and thus under-appreciated, EVs are now increasingly recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and circulating biomarkers for disease diagnoses and prognosis. Despite their clinical potential, the lack of sensitive preparatory and analytical technologies for EVs poses a barrier to clinical translation. New analytical platforms including molecular ones are thus actively being developed to address these challenges. Recent advances in the field are expected to have far-reaching impact in both basic and translational studies. This article aims to present a comprehensive and critical overview of emerging analytical technologies for EV detection and their clinical applications.