A study of electrokinetic properties of reconstituted sarcoplasmic reticulum was undertaken to determine the nature of the groups bearing the negative charge of the membrane. After incorporation of phosphatidylcholine into the bilayer, it was found that the Ca2+-ATPase embedded in functional vesicles bore 3e- per mole. When the surface charge density of the hydrodynamic particles became more negatively charged by incorporation of phosphatidylserine molecules, the reconstituted vesicles had a tendency to build large structures resulting from vesicle-vesicle interaction and containing large amounts of divalent cations. These aggregated structures may partially explain the discrepancy observed between the expected value of the surface charge density and the data obtained by electrophoretic mobility measurements. This work emphasizes the importance of a renewal of the classical interpretation of electrophoretic mobility data in order to analyze the results obtained with biological material. To explain the energy transduction process which takes place in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, it was of interest to determine whether or not variations of the surface electrical properties affect the calcium ion translocation upon ATP hydrolysis. Relatively significant modifications of the bilayer composition and surface charge density did not appreciably affect the calcium transport activity.