Antioxidative and Anti-Melanogenic Activities of Bamboo Stems (Phyllostachys nigra variety henosis) via PKA/CREB-Mediated MITF Downregulation in B16F10 Melanoma Cells

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jan 30;19(2):409. doi: 10.3390/ijms19020409.


Phyllostachys nigra var. henosis, a domestic bamboo species, has been attracting much attention; its bioactive compounds (especially in the leaf) show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. Little information is available on the antioxidative and anti-melanogenetic activities of the bioactive compounds in bamboo stems. The anti-melanogenic and antioxidative activities of the EtOAc fraction (PN3) of a P. nigra stem extract were investigated in a cell-free system and in B16F10 melanoma cells. PN3 consisted of a mixture of flavonoids, such as catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging) was evaluated, as well as the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the Fenton reaction. PN3 showed in vitro tyrosinase inhibition activity with the half maximal inbihitory concentration (IC50) values of 240 μg/mL, and in vivo cytotoxic concentration ranges > 100 μg/mL. The protein expression levels and mRNA transcription levels of TYR, TRP-1, and MITF were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the treatment with PN3. PN3 interfered with the phosphorylation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), demonstrating potent anti-melanogenic effects. PN3 could inhibit PKA/CREB and the subsequent degradation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), resulting in the suppression of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production, probably because of the presence of flavonoid compounds. These properties make it a candidate as an additive to whitening cosmetics.

Keywords: B16F10 melanoma cells; Phyllostachys nigra var. henosis; anti-melanogenesis; antioxidation; bamboo stem; whitening cosmetics.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / chemistry
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism*
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism*
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects*
  • Melanoma* / drug therapy
  • Melanoma* / metabolism
  • Melanoma* / pathology
  • Mice
  • Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / biosynthesis*
  • Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism*
  • Plant Stems / chemistry*
  • Poaceae / chemistry*


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Antioxidants
  • Creb1 protein, mouse
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor
  • Mitf protein, mouse
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases