Background: To examine the effects of daily weighted vest use during a dietary weight loss intervention, on (a) hip and spine bone mineral density (aBMD), and (b) biomarkers of bone turnover, in older adults with obesity.
Methods: 37 older (70.1 ± 3.0 years) adults with obesity (BMI=35.3 ± 2.9) underwent a 22 week dietary weight loss intervention (1100-1300 kcal/day) with (Diet+Vest; n=20) or without (Diet; n=17) weighted vest use (goal: 10+ h/day; weight added incrementally based on amount of weight lost). Total body weight; DXA-acquired aBMD of the total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine; and biomarkers of bone turnover (OC, BALP, P1NP, CTX) were measured at baseline and follow up. General linear models, adjusted for baseline values of the outcome and gender, were used to examine intervention effects.
Results: Average weight loss was significant in both groups (-11.2 ± 4.4 kg and -11.0 ± 6.3 kg, Diet+Vest and Diet groups, respectively), with no difference between groups (p=0.91). Average weighted vest use was 6.7 ± 2.2 h/day. No significant changes in aBMD or biomarkers were observed, although trends were noted for total hip aBMD and BALP. Loss in total hip aBMD was greater in the Diet group compared with Diet+Vest (Δ: -18.7 [29.3, -8.1] mg/cm2 versus -6.1 [-15.7, 3.5] mg/cm2; p=0.08). BALP increased in the Diet+Vest group by 3.8% (Δ: 0.59 [-0.33, 1.50] μg/L) and decreased by -4.6% in the Diet group (Δ: -0.70 [-1.70, 0.31] μg/L, p=0.07).
Conclusion: Weighted vest use during weight loss may attenuate loss of hip aBMD and increase bone formation in older adults with obesity. Further study is warranted.
Keywords: Bone mineral density; Bone turnover; Obesity; Weight loss; Weighted vest.